Endocrine Late Effects in Childhood Cancer SurvivorsChildhood cancer management has improved considerably over the years, leading to a significant improvement in survival of up to 80%.

However, childhood cancer survivors are at the highest risk of developing sequelae resulting from treatment, with endocrine complications being frequently observed among survivors. Multiple predisposing factors for endocrine sequelae have been identified, including age at diagnosis, treatment received, radiation, tumor type, and genetic polymorphisms, which could explain the individual predisposition to develop drug toxicity.

Novel agents targeting tumor growth and immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently become the cornerstone for the treatment of different cancers, triggering a myriad of immune-related endocrinopathies. Endocrine sequelae of cancer therapy will have an impact on not only childhood but also on the survival and quality of life of these highly complex patients.

Therefore, lifelong monitoring of childhood cancer survivors at risk of endocrine diseases is paramount. Encouraging oncologists and endocrinologists to develop new follow-up and early detection guidelines that minimize sequelae among these patients has become a priority, promoting integration between pediatric and adult units since many sequelae may manifest only after years to decades of follow-up.